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The decks were made of high-tensile steel. The forecastle deck ranged from 1. The 3-inch plating on the main deck was added at a very late stage of construction and the four aftermost 5.

Live-firing trials with the new inch APC armour-piercing, capped shell against a mock-up of Hood showed that this shell could penetrate the ship's vitals via the 7-inch middle belt and the 2-inch slope of the main deck.

To compensate for the additional weight, the two submerged torpedo tubes and the armour for the rear torpedo warheads were removed, and the armour for the aft torpedo-control tower was reduced in thickness from 6 to 1.

However, the additional armour was never fitted pending further trials. For protection against torpedoes, she was given a 7. It was divided into an empty outer compartment and an inner compartment filled with five rows of water-tight "crushing tubes" intended to absorb and distribute the force of an explosion.

The bulge was backed by a 1. Hood was initially fitted with flying-off platforms mounted on top of 'B' and 'X' turrets, from which Fairey Flycatchers could launch.

During the West Indies cruise, the catapult proved to be difficult to operate in anything but a calm sea, as it was frequently awash in bad weather.

The catapult and crane were removed in , along with the flying-off platform on 'B' turret. Although the Royal Navy always designated Hood as a battlecruiser, some modern writers such as Anthony Preston have classified her as a fast battleship , since Hood appeared to have improvements over the fast Queen Elizabeth -class battleships.

On paper, Hood retained the same armament and level of protection, while being significantly faster. Mayo , commander of the Atlantic Fleet , became extremely impressed by Hood , which they described as a "fast battleship", and they advocated that the US Navy develop a fast battleship of its own.

Influences from Hood showed on subsequent Lexington designs, with the reduction of the main armour belt, the change to " sloped armour ", and the addition of four above-water torpedo tubes to the four underwater tubes of the original design.

For instance, the never-built G3 battlecruiser was classified as such, although it would have been more of a fast battleship than Hood. The Royal Navy were fully aware that the ship's protection flaws still remained, even in her revised design, so Hood was intended for the duties of a battlecruiser and she served in the battlecruiser squadrons through most of her career.

Late in her career, Hood was outclassed by the armour and protective arrangement of World War II-era fast battleships, but few available "big gun" vessels could match Bismarck ' s speed, and in , the Admiralty included Hood among the ships sent to engage the German battleship Bismarck.

The development of effective time-delay shells at the end of World War I made this scheme much less effective, as the intact shell would penetrate layers of weak armour and explode deep inside the ship.

Sir Horace Hood had been killed while commanding the 3rd Battlecruiser Squadron and flying his flag on Invincible —one of the three battlecruisers which blew up at the Battle of Jutland.

To make room in John Brown's shipyard for merchant construction, Hood sailed for Rosyth to complete her fitting-out on 9 January With her conspicuous twin funnels and lean profile, Hood was widely regarded one of the finest-looking warships ever built.

She was also the largest warship afloat when she was commissioned, and retained that distinction for the next 20 years.

After a cruise to Scandinavian waters that year, Captain Geoffrey Mackworth assumed command. Hood visited the Mediterranean in and to show the flag and to train with the Mediterranean fleet, before sailing on a cruise to Brazil and the West Indies in company with the battlecruiser squadron.

Captain John im Thurn was in command when Hood , accompanied by the battlecruiser Repulse and Danae -class cruisers of the 1st Light Cruiser Squadron , set out on a world cruise from west to east via the Panama Canal in November The objective of the cruise was to remind the dominions of their dependence on British sea power and encourage them to support it with money, ships, and facilities.

They returned home 10 months later in September , having visited South Africa , India , Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and some smaller colonies and dependencies, and the United States.

Hood continued this pattern of a winter training visit to the Mediterranean for the rest of the decade. Hood was given a major refit from 1 May to 10 March , and afterwards resumed her role as flagship of the battlecruiser squadron under the command of Captain Julian Patterson.

Later that year, her crew participated in the Invergordon Mutiny over pay cuts for the sailors. It ended peacefully and Hood returned to her home port afterwards.

The battlecruiser squadron made a Caribbean cruise in early , and Hood was given another brief refit between 31 March and 10 May at Portsmouth.

Captain Thomas Binney assumed command on 15 August and the ship resumed her previous practice of a winter cruise in the Mediterranean the next year.

Her secondary and antiaircraft fire-control directors were rearranged during another quick refit between 1 August and 5 September While en route to Gibraltar for a Mediterranean cruise, Hood was rammed in the port side quarterdeck by the battlecruiser Renown on 23 January Temporary repairs were made at Gibraltar before the ship sailed to Portsmouth for permanent repairs between February and May The captains of both ships were court-martialled , as was the squadron commander, Rear Admiral Sidney Bailey.

Tower and Bailey were acquitted, but Renown ' s Captain Sawbridge was relieved of command. The Admiralty dissented from the verdict, reinstated Sawbridge, and criticised Bailey for ambiguous signals during the manoeuvre.

She was attached to the Mediterranean fleet shortly afterwards and stationed at Gibraltar at the outbreak of the Second Italo-Abyssinian War in October.

Captain Arthur Pridham assumed command on 1 February and Hood returned to Portsmouth for a brief refit between 26 June and 10 October She formally transferred to the Mediterranean fleet on 20 October, shortly after the beginning of the Spanish Civil War.

Hood was due to be modernised in to bring her up to a standard similar to that of other modernised World War I-era capital ships.

She would have received new, lighter turbines and boilers, a secondary armament of eight twin 5. Her 5-inch upper-armour strake would have been removed and her deck armour reinforced.

A catapult would have been fitted across the deck and the remaining torpedo tubes removed. In addition, the conning tower would have been removed and her bridge rebuilt.

The outbreak of World War II made removing her from service near impossible, and as a consequence, she never received the scheduled modernisation afforded to other capital ships such as the battlecruiser Renown and several of the Queen Elizabeth -class battleships.

These problems also reduced her steam output so that she was unable to attain her designed speed. When war broke out later that year, she was employed principally to patrol in the vicinity of Iceland and the Faroe Islands to protect convoys and intercept German merchant raiders and blockade runners attempting to break out into the Atlantic.

On 25 September , the Home Fleet sortied into the central North Sea to cover the return of the damaged submarine Spearfish.

By early , Hood ' s machinery was in dire shape and limited her best speed to Just eight days after the French surrender, the British Admiralty issued an ultimatum that the French fleet at Oran intern its ships in a British or neutral port to ensure they would not fall into Axis hands.

The terms were rejected and the Royal Navy opened fire on the French ships berthed there. Hood was straddled during the engagement by Dunkerque ; shell splinters wounded two men.

Dunkerque ' s sister ship , Strasbourg , managed to escape from the harbour. On 13 September, after a short refit, she was sent to Rosyth along with the battleships Nelson and Rodney and other ships, to be in a better position to intercept a German invasion fleet.

When the threat of an invasion diminished, the ship resumed her previous roles in convoy escort and patrolling against German commerce raiders.

Twice, Hood was dispatched against enemy warships. On 28 October she sailed to intercept the "pocket battleship" Admiral Scheer , and again on 24 December to locate the heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper , but Hood failed to find either ship.

In January , the ship began a refit that lasted until March; even after the refit she was still in poor condition, but the threat from the German capital ships was such that she could not be taken into dock for a major overhaul until more of the King George V -class battleships came into service.

Captain Ralph Kerr assumed command during the refit, and Hood was ordered to sea in an attempt to intercept the German battleships Gneisenau and Scharnhorst upon the refit's completion in mid-March.

Unsuccessful, she was ordered to patrol the Bay of Biscay against any breakout attempt by the German ships from Brest.

When Bismarck sailed for the Atlantic in May , Hood , together with the newly commissioned battleship Prince of Wales , was sent out in pursuit along with several other groups of British capital ships to intercept the German ships before they could break into the Atlantic and attack Allied convoys.

The British squadron spotted the Germans at ship's clocks were set four hours ahead of local time — the engagement commenced shortly after dawn , [66] but the Germans were already aware of their presence, Prinz Eugen ' s hydrophones having previously detected the sounds of high-speed propellers to their southeast.

The British opened fire at with Hood engaging Prinz Eugen , the lead ship in the German formation, and the Germans returned fire at , both ships concentrating on Hood.

Prinz Eugen was probably the first ship to score when a shell hit Hood ' s boat deck, between her funnels , and started a large fire among the ready-use ammunition for the anti-aircraft guns and rockets of the UP mounts.

This explosion broke the back of Hood , and the last sight of the ship, which sank in only three minutes, was her bow, nearly vertical in the water.

Hood sank stern first with men aboard. Prince of Wales was forced to disengage by a combination of damage from German hits and mechanical failures in her guns and turrets after Hood was sunk.

Despite these problems, she had hit Bismarck three times. One of these hits contaminated a good portion of the ship's fuel supply and subsequently caused her to steer for safety in occupied France where she could be repaired.

Bismarck was temporarily able to evade detection, but was later spotted and sunk by the British on 27 May.

It endorsed this opinion, stating that:. The conduct of the inquiry became subject to criticism e. Moreover, Sir Stanley V.

Goodall, Director of Naval Construction came forward with an alternative theory, that the Hood had been destroyed by the explosion of her own torpedoes.

The Board came to a conclusion almost identical to that of the first board, expressed as follows:. That the sinking of Hood was due to a hit from Bismarck ' s inch shell in or adjacent to Hood ' s 4-inch or inch magazines, causing them all to explode and wreck the after part of the ship.

The probability is that the 4-inch magazines exploded first. Both boards of enquiry exonerated Vice-Admiral Holland from any blame regarding the loss of Hood.

Memorials to those who died are spread widely around the UK, and some of the crew are commemorated in different locations.

The exact cause of the loss of Hood remains a subject of debate. The principal theories include the following causes:.

A difficulty with any such historical research is that Robert was a very common given name in medieval England , and 'Robin' or Robyn was its very common diminutive , especially in the 13th century; [89] it is a French hypocorism , [90] already mentioned in the Roman de Renart in the 12th century.

The surname Hood or Hude, Hode, etc. It is therefore unsurprising that medieval records mention a number of people called 'Robert Hood' or 'Robin Hood', some of whom are known to have fallen foul of the law.

The earliest recorded example, in connection with May games in Somerset , dates from The oldest references to Robin Hood are not historical records, or even ballads recounting his exploits, but hints and allusions found in various works.

From onward, the names "Robinhood", "Robehod", or "Robbehod" occur in the rolls of several English Justices as nicknames or descriptions of malefactors.

The majority of these references date from the late 13th century. Between and , there are at least eight references to "Rabunhod" in various regions across England, from Berkshire in the south to York in the north.

Leaving aside the reference to the "rhymes" of Robin Hood in Piers Plowman in the s, [93] [94] and the scattered mentions of his "tales and songs" in various religious tracts dating to the early s, [95] [96] [97] the first mention of a quasi-historical Robin Hood is given in Andrew of Wyntoun 's Orygynale Chronicle , written in about The following lines occur with little contextualisation under the year In a petition presented to Parliament in , the name is used to describe an itinerant felon.

The petition cites one Piers Venables of Aston, Derbyshire , "who having no liflode, ne sufficeante of goodes, gadered and assembled unto him many misdoers, beynge of his clothynge, and, in manere of insurrection, wente into the wodes in that countrie, like as it hadde be Robyn Hude and his meyne.

The next historical description of Robin Hood is a statement in the Scotichronicon , composed by John of Fordun between and , and revised by Walter Bower in about Among Bower's many interpolations is a passage that directly refers to Robin.

It is inserted after Fordun's account of the defeat of Simon de Montfort and the punishment of his adherents, and is entered under the year in Bower's account.

Robin is represented as a fighter for de Montfort's cause. The word translated here as 'murderer' is the Latin sicarius literally 'dagger-man' , from the Latin sica for 'dagger', and descends from its use to describe the Sicarii , assassins operating in Roman Judea.

Bower goes on to relate an anecdote about Robin Hood in which he refuses to flee from his enemies while hearing Mass in the greenwood, and then gains a surprise victory over them, apparently as a reward for his piety; the mention of "tragedies" suggests that some form of the tale relating his death, as per A Gest of Robyn Hode , might have been in currency already.

Another reference, discovered by Julian Luxford in , appears in the margin of the " Polychronicon " in the Eton College library. Written around the year by a monk in Latin, it says:.

In , jurist Edward Coke described Robin Hood as a historical figure who had operated in the reign of King Richard I around Yorkshire; he interpreted the contemporary term "roberdsmen" outlaws as meaning followers of Robin Hood.

The earliest known legal records mentioning a person called Robin Hood Robert Hod are from , found in the York Assizes , when that person's goods, worth 32 shillings and 6 pence, were confiscated and he became an outlaw.

Robert Hod owed the money to St Peter's in York. The following year, he was called "Hobbehod", and also came to known as "Robert Hood". Robert Hod of York is the only early Robin Hood known to have been an outlaw.

Owen in floated the idea that Robin Hood might be identified with an outlawed Robert Hood, or Hod, or Hobbehod, all apparently the same man, referred to in nine successive Yorkshire Pipe Rolls between and Historian Oscar de Ville discusses the career of John Deyville and his brother Robert, along with their kinsmen Jocelin and Adam, during the Second Barons' War , specifically their activities after the Battle of Evesham.

John Deyville was granted authority by the faction led by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester over York Castle and the Northern Forests during the war in which they sought refuge after Evesham.

John, along with his relatives, led the remaining rebel faction on the Isle of Ely following the Dictum of Kenilworth.

While John was eventually pardoned and continued his career until , his kinsmen are no longer mentioned by historical records after the events surrounding their resistance at Ely, and de Ville speculates that Robert remained an outlaw.

The last of these is suggested to be the inspiration for Robin Hood's second name as opposed to the more common theory of a head covering.

Although de Ville does not explicitly connect John and Robert Deyville to Robin Hood, he discusses these parallels in detail and suggests that they formed prototypes for this ideal of heroic outlawry during the tumultuous reign of Henry III's grandson and Edward I's son, Edward II of England.

David Baldwin identifies Robin Hood with the historical outlaw Roger Godberd , who was a die-hard supporter of Simon de Montfort , which would place Robin Hood around the s.

John Maddicott has called Godberd "that prototype Robin Hood". The antiquarian Joseph Hunter — believed that Robin Hood had inhabited the forests of Yorkshire during the early decades of the fourteenth century.

Hunter pointed to two men whom, believing them to be the same person, he identified with the legendary outlaw:. Hunter developed a fairly detailed theory implying that Robert Hood had been an adherent of the rebel Earl of Lancaster , who was defeated by Edward II at the Battle of Boroughbridge in According to this theory, Robert Hood was thereafter pardoned and employed as a bodyguard by King Edward, and in consequence he appears in the court roll under the name of "Robyn Hode".

Hunter's theory has long been recognised to have serious problems, one of the most serious being that recent research has shown that Hunter's Robyn Hood had been employed by the king before he appeared in the court roll, thus casting doubt on this Robyn Hood's supposed earlier career as outlaw and rebel.

It has long been suggested, notably by John Maddicott , that "Robin Hood" was a stock alias used by thieves. There is at present little or no scholarly support for the view that tales of Robin Hood have stemmed from mythology or folklore, from fairies or other mythological origins, any such associations being regarded as later development.

While the outlaw often shows great skill in archery, swordplay and disguise, his feats are no more exaggerated than those of characters in other ballads, such as Kinmont Willie , which were based on historical events.

Robin Hood has also been claimed for the pagan witch-cult supposed by Margaret Murray to have existed in medieval Europe, and his anti-clericalism and Marianism interpreted in this light.

The early ballads link Robin Hood to identifiable real places. In popular culture, Robin Hood and his band of "merry men" are portrayed as living in Sherwood Forest , in Nottinghamshire.

His chronicle entry reads:. Mary in the village of Edwinstowe and most famously of all, the Major Oak also located at the village of Edwinstowe. Dendrologists have contradicted this claim by estimating the tree's true age at around eight hundred years; it would have been relatively a sapling in Robin's time, at best.

Nottinghamshire's claim to Robin Hood's heritage is disputed, with Yorkists staking a claim to the outlaw. In demonstrating Yorkshire's Robin Hood heritage, the historian J.

Holt drew attention to the fact that although Sherwood Forest is mentioned in Robin Hood and the Monk , there is little information about the topography of the region, and thus suggested that Robin Hood was drawn to Nottinghamshire through his interactions with the city's sheriff.

Robin Hood's Yorkshire origins are generally accepted by professional historians. A tradition dating back at least to the end of the 16th century gives Robin Hood's birthplace as Loxley , Sheffield , in South Yorkshire.

The original Robin Hood ballads, which originate from the fifteenth century, set events in the medieval forest of Barnsdale.

Barnsdale was a wooded area covering an expanse of no more than thirty square miles, ranging six miles from north to south, with the River Went at Wentbridge near Pontefract forming its northern boundary and the villages of Skelbrooke and Hampole forming the southernmost region.

From east to west the forest extended about five miles, from Askern on the east to Badsworth in the west. During the medieval age Wentbridge was sometimes locally referred to by the name of Barnsdale because it was the predominant settlement in the forest.

And, while Wentbridge is not directly named in A Gest of Robyn Hode , the poem does appear to make a cryptic reference to the locality by depicting a poor knight explaining to Robin Hood that he 'went at a bridge' where there was wrestling'.

The Gest makes a specific reference to the Saylis at Wentbridge. Credit is due to the nineteenth-century antiquarian Joseph Hunter , who correctly identified the site of the Saylis.

The Saylis is recorded as having contributed towards the aid that was granted to Edward III in —47 for the knighting of the Black Prince.

An acre of landholding is listed within a glebe terrier of relating to Kirk Smeaton , which later came to be called "Sailes Close".

Taylor indicate that such evidence of continuity makes it virtually certain that the Saylis that was so well known to Robin Hood is preserved today as "Sayles Plantation".

One final locality in the forest of Barnsdale that is associated with Robin Hood is the village of Campsall.

Davis indicates that there is only one church dedicated to Mary Magdalene within what one might reasonably consider to have been the medieval forest of Barnsdale, and that is the church at Campsall.

The church was built in the late eleventh century by Robert de Lacy, the 2nd Baron of Pontefract.

The backdrop of St Mary's Abbey, York plays a central role in the Gest as the poor knight whom Robin aids owes money to the abbot.

At Kirklees Priory in West Yorkshire stands an alleged grave with a spurious inscription, which relates to Robin Hood.

The fifteenth-century ballads relate that before he died, Robin told Little John where to bury him.

He shot an arrow from the Priory window, and where the arrow landed was to be the site of his grave. The Gest states that the Prioress was a relative of Robin's.

Robin was ill and staying at the Priory where the Prioress was supposedly caring for him. However, she betrayed him, his health worsened, and he eventually died there.

The inscription on the grave reads,. Despite the unconventional spelling, the verse is in Modern English , not the Middle English of the 13th century.

The date is also incorrectly formatted — using the Roman calendar , "24 kal Decembris" would be the twenty-third day before the beginning of December, that is, 8 November.

The tomb probably dates from the late eighteenth century. The grave with the inscription is within sight of the ruins of the Kirklees Priory, behind the Three Nuns pub in Mirfield , West Yorkshire.

Though local folklore suggests that Robin is buried in the grounds of Kirklees Priory , this theory has now largely been abandoned by professional historians.

Another theory is that Robin Hood died at Kirkby, Pontefract. Michael Drayton 's Poly-Olbion Song 28 67—70 , published in , speaks of Robin Hood's death and clearly states that the outlaw died at 'Kirkby'.

The location is approximately three miles from the site of Robin's robberies at the now famous Saylis. All Saints' Church had a priory hospital attached to it.

The Tudor historian Richard Grafton stated that the prioress who murdered Robin Hood buried the outlaw beside the road,. Where he had used to rob and spoyle those that passed that way All Saints' Church at Kirkby, modern Pontefract, which was located approximately three miles from the site of Robin Hood's robberies at the Saylis, is consistent with Richard Grafton's description because a road ran directly from Wentbridge to the hospital at Kirkby.

Within close proximity of Wentbridge reside several notable landmarks relating to Robin Hood. One such place-name location occurred in a cartulary deed of from Monkbretton Priory, which makes direct reference to a landmark named Robin Hood's Stone, which resided upon the eastern side of the Great North Road, a mile south of Barnsdale Bar.

Robin Hood type place-names occurred particularly everywhere except Sherwood. The first place-name in Sherwood does not appear until the year The Sheriff of Nottingham also had jurisdiction in Derbyshire that was known as the "Shire of the Deer", and this is where the Royal Forest of the Peak is found, which roughly corresponds to today's Peak District National Park.

Mercia , to which Nottingham belonged, came to within three miles of Sheffield City Centre. But before the Law of the Normans was the Law of the Danes, The Danelaw had a similar boundary to that of Mercia but had a population of Free Peasantry that were known to have resisted the Norman occupation.

Many outlaws could have been created by the refusal to recognise Norman Forest Law. Further indications of the legend's connection with West Yorkshire and particularly Calderdale are noted in the fact that there are pubs called the Robin Hood in both nearby Brighouse and at Cragg Vale ; higher up in the Pennines beyond Halifax , where Robin Hood Rocks can also be found.

Considering these references to Robin Hood, it is not surprising that the people of both South and West Yorkshire lay some claim to Robin Hood, who, if he existed, could easily have roamed between Nottingham, Lincoln , Doncaster and right into West Yorkshire.

A British Army Territorial reserves battalion formed in Nottingham in was known as The Robin Hood Battalion through various reorganisations until the "Robin Hood" name finally disappeared in A Neolithic causewayed enclosure on Salisbury Plain has acquired the name Robin Hood's Ball , although had Robin Hood existed it is doubtful that he would have travelled so far south.

Ballads dating back to the 15th century are the oldest existing form of the Robin Hood legends, although none of them were recorded at the time of the first allusions to him, and many are from much later.

They share many common features, often opening with praise of the greenwood and relying heavily on disguise as a plot device , but include a wide variation in tone and plot.

Ballads whose first recorded version appears usually incomplete in the Percy Folio may appear in later versions [] and may be much older than the midth century when the Folio was compiled.

Any ballad may be older than the oldest copy that happens to survive, or descended from a lost older ballad.

For example, the plot of Robin Hood's Death , found in the Percy Folio, is summarised in the 15th-century A Gest of Robyn Hode , and it also appears in an 18th-century version.

The first two ballads listed here the "Death" and "Gisborne" , although preserved in 17th-century copies, are generally agreed to preserve the substance of late medieval ballads.

The third the "Curtal Friar" and the fourth the "Butcher" , also probably have late medieval origins. Some ballads, such as Erlinton , feature Robin Hood in some variants, where the folk hero appears to be added to a ballad pre-existing him and in which he does not fit very well.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Robin Hood disambiguation. Arthur Bourchier James Booth M. Main articles: Robin Hood in popular culture and List of films and television series featuring Robin Hood.

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One was on each side of the amidships control tower and the third was on the centreline abaft the aft control position.

During the —31 refit, a high-angle control system HACS Mark I director was added on the rear searchlight platform and two positions for 2-pounder "pom-pom" antiaircraft directors were added at the rear of the spotting top, although only one director was initially fitted.

In , the "pom-pom" directors were moved to the former locations of the 5. Two years later, the "pom-pom" directors were moved to the rear corners of the bridge to get them out of the funnel gases.

Another "pom-pom" director was added on the rear superstructure, abaft the HACS director in Hood, H. Illustrious, H.

According to the HMS Hood Association website, [28] the air warning radar was of a modified type, known as Type M, the difference between this and Type being the number of aerials.

While Type used two aerials, a transmitter and a receiver, the Type M used only a single transceiver aerial. Hood reported an accuracy of 3 degrees with her M set.

This change increased the ship's vulnerability to plunging high-trajectory shells, as it exposed more of the vulnerable deck armour.

To save construction time, this was accomplished by thickening the existing armour, rather than redesigning the entire ship. The armoured belt consisted of face-hardened Krupp cemented armour KC , arranged in three strakes.

The decks were made of high-tensile steel. The forecastle deck ranged from 1. The 3-inch plating on the main deck was added at a very late stage of construction and the four aftermost 5.

Live-firing trials with the new inch APC armour-piercing, capped shell against a mock-up of Hood showed that this shell could penetrate the ship's vitals via the 7-inch middle belt and the 2-inch slope of the main deck.

To compensate for the additional weight, the two submerged torpedo tubes and the armour for the rear torpedo warheads were removed, and the armour for the aft torpedo-control tower was reduced in thickness from 6 to 1.

However, the additional armour was never fitted pending further trials. For protection against torpedoes, she was given a 7. It was divided into an empty outer compartment and an inner compartment filled with five rows of water-tight "crushing tubes" intended to absorb and distribute the force of an explosion.

The bulge was backed by a 1. Hood was initially fitted with flying-off platforms mounted on top of 'B' and 'X' turrets, from which Fairey Flycatchers could launch.

During the West Indies cruise, the catapult proved to be difficult to operate in anything but a calm sea, as it was frequently awash in bad weather.

The catapult and crane were removed in , along with the flying-off platform on 'B' turret. Although the Royal Navy always designated Hood as a battlecruiser, some modern writers such as Anthony Preston have classified her as a fast battleship , since Hood appeared to have improvements over the fast Queen Elizabeth -class battleships.

On paper, Hood retained the same armament and level of protection, while being significantly faster. Mayo , commander of the Atlantic Fleet , became extremely impressed by Hood , which they described as a "fast battleship", and they advocated that the US Navy develop a fast battleship of its own.

Influences from Hood showed on subsequent Lexington designs, with the reduction of the main armour belt, the change to " sloped armour ", and the addition of four above-water torpedo tubes to the four underwater tubes of the original design.

For instance, the never-built G3 battlecruiser was classified as such, although it would have been more of a fast battleship than Hood. The Royal Navy were fully aware that the ship's protection flaws still remained, even in her revised design, so Hood was intended for the duties of a battlecruiser and she served in the battlecruiser squadrons through most of her career.

Late in her career, Hood was outclassed by the armour and protective arrangement of World War II-era fast battleships, but few available "big gun" vessels could match Bismarck ' s speed, and in , the Admiralty included Hood among the ships sent to engage the German battleship Bismarck.

The development of effective time-delay shells at the end of World War I made this scheme much less effective, as the intact shell would penetrate layers of weak armour and explode deep inside the ship.

Sir Horace Hood had been killed while commanding the 3rd Battlecruiser Squadron and flying his flag on Invincible —one of the three battlecruisers which blew up at the Battle of Jutland.

To make room in John Brown's shipyard for merchant construction, Hood sailed for Rosyth to complete her fitting-out on 9 January With her conspicuous twin funnels and lean profile, Hood was widely regarded one of the finest-looking warships ever built.

She was also the largest warship afloat when she was commissioned, and retained that distinction for the next 20 years.

After a cruise to Scandinavian waters that year, Captain Geoffrey Mackworth assumed command. Hood visited the Mediterranean in and to show the flag and to train with the Mediterranean fleet, before sailing on a cruise to Brazil and the West Indies in company with the battlecruiser squadron.

Captain John im Thurn was in command when Hood , accompanied by the battlecruiser Repulse and Danae -class cruisers of the 1st Light Cruiser Squadron , set out on a world cruise from west to east via the Panama Canal in November The objective of the cruise was to remind the dominions of their dependence on British sea power and encourage them to support it with money, ships, and facilities.

They returned home 10 months later in September , having visited South Africa , India , Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and some smaller colonies and dependencies, and the United States.

Hood continued this pattern of a winter training visit to the Mediterranean for the rest of the decade. Hood was given a major refit from 1 May to 10 March , and afterwards resumed her role as flagship of the battlecruiser squadron under the command of Captain Julian Patterson.

Later that year, her crew participated in the Invergordon Mutiny over pay cuts for the sailors. It ended peacefully and Hood returned to her home port afterwards.

The battlecruiser squadron made a Caribbean cruise in early , and Hood was given another brief refit between 31 March and 10 May at Portsmouth.

Captain Thomas Binney assumed command on 15 August and the ship resumed her previous practice of a winter cruise in the Mediterranean the next year.

Her secondary and antiaircraft fire-control directors were rearranged during another quick refit between 1 August and 5 September While en route to Gibraltar for a Mediterranean cruise, Hood was rammed in the port side quarterdeck by the battlecruiser Renown on 23 January Temporary repairs were made at Gibraltar before the ship sailed to Portsmouth for permanent repairs between February and May The captains of both ships were court-martialled , as was the squadron commander, Rear Admiral Sidney Bailey.

Tower and Bailey were acquitted, but Renown ' s Captain Sawbridge was relieved of command. The Admiralty dissented from the verdict, reinstated Sawbridge, and criticised Bailey for ambiguous signals during the manoeuvre.

She was attached to the Mediterranean fleet shortly afterwards and stationed at Gibraltar at the outbreak of the Second Italo-Abyssinian War in October.

Captain Arthur Pridham assumed command on 1 February and Hood returned to Portsmouth for a brief refit between 26 June and 10 October She formally transferred to the Mediterranean fleet on 20 October, shortly after the beginning of the Spanish Civil War.

Hood was due to be modernised in to bring her up to a standard similar to that of other modernised World War I-era capital ships.

She would have received new, lighter turbines and boilers, a secondary armament of eight twin 5. Her 5-inch upper-armour strake would have been removed and her deck armour reinforced.

A catapult would have been fitted across the deck and the remaining torpedo tubes removed. In addition, the conning tower would have been removed and her bridge rebuilt.

The outbreak of World War II made removing her from service near impossible, and as a consequence, she never received the scheduled modernisation afforded to other capital ships such as the battlecruiser Renown and several of the Queen Elizabeth -class battleships.

These problems also reduced her steam output so that she was unable to attain her designed speed. When war broke out later that year, she was employed principally to patrol in the vicinity of Iceland and the Faroe Islands to protect convoys and intercept German merchant raiders and blockade runners attempting to break out into the Atlantic.

On 25 September , the Home Fleet sortied into the central North Sea to cover the return of the damaged submarine Spearfish.

By early , Hood ' s machinery was in dire shape and limited her best speed to Just eight days after the French surrender, the British Admiralty issued an ultimatum that the French fleet at Oran intern its ships in a British or neutral port to ensure they would not fall into Axis hands.

The terms were rejected and the Royal Navy opened fire on the French ships berthed there. Hood was straddled during the engagement by Dunkerque ; shell splinters wounded two men.

Dunkerque ' s sister ship , Strasbourg , managed to escape from the harbour. On 13 September, after a short refit, she was sent to Rosyth along with the battleships Nelson and Rodney and other ships, to be in a better position to intercept a German invasion fleet.

When the threat of an invasion diminished, the ship resumed her previous roles in convoy escort and patrolling against German commerce raiders.

Twice, Hood was dispatched against enemy warships. On 28 October she sailed to intercept the "pocket battleship" Admiral Scheer , and again on 24 December to locate the heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper , but Hood failed to find either ship.

In January , the ship began a refit that lasted until March; even after the refit she was still in poor condition, but the threat from the German capital ships was such that she could not be taken into dock for a major overhaul until more of the King George V -class battleships came into service.

Captain Ralph Kerr assumed command during the refit, and Hood was ordered to sea in an attempt to intercept the German battleships Gneisenau and Scharnhorst upon the refit's completion in mid-March.

Unsuccessful, she was ordered to patrol the Bay of Biscay against any breakout attempt by the German ships from Brest. When Bismarck sailed for the Atlantic in May , Hood , together with the newly commissioned battleship Prince of Wales , was sent out in pursuit along with several other groups of British capital ships to intercept the German ships before they could break into the Atlantic and attack Allied convoys.

The British squadron spotted the Germans at ship's clocks were set four hours ahead of local time — the engagement commenced shortly after dawn , [66] but the Germans were already aware of their presence, Prinz Eugen ' s hydrophones having previously detected the sounds of high-speed propellers to their southeast.

The British opened fire at with Hood engaging Prinz Eugen , the lead ship in the German formation, and the Germans returned fire at , both ships concentrating on Hood.

Prinz Eugen was probably the first ship to score when a shell hit Hood ' s boat deck, between her funnels , and started a large fire among the ready-use ammunition for the anti-aircraft guns and rockets of the UP mounts.

This explosion broke the back of Hood , and the last sight of the ship, which sank in only three minutes, was her bow, nearly vertical in the water.

Hood sank stern first with men aboard. Prince of Wales was forced to disengage by a combination of damage from German hits and mechanical failures in her guns and turrets after Hood was sunk.

Despite these problems, she had hit Bismarck three times. One of these hits contaminated a good portion of the ship's fuel supply and subsequently caused her to steer for safety in occupied France where she could be repaired.

Bismarck was temporarily able to evade detection, but was later spotted and sunk by the British on 27 May. It endorsed this opinion, stating that:.

The conduct of the inquiry became subject to criticism e. Moreover, Sir Stanley V. Goodall, Director of Naval Construction came forward with an alternative theory, that the Hood had been destroyed by the explosion of her own torpedoes.

The Board came to a conclusion almost identical to that of the first board, expressed as follows:. That the sinking of Hood was due to a hit from Bismarck ' s inch shell in or adjacent to Hood ' s 4-inch or inch magazines, causing them all to explode and wreck the after part of the ship.

The probability is that the 4-inch magazines exploded first. Both boards of enquiry exonerated Vice-Admiral Holland from any blame regarding the loss of Hood.

Memorials to those who died are spread widely around the UK, and some of the crew are commemorated in different locations.

The exact cause of the loss of Hood remains a subject of debate. The principal theories include the following causes:. At the second board, expert witnesses suggested that what was observed was the venting, through the engine-room ventilators, of a violent—but not instantaneous—explosion or deflagration in the 4-inch shell magazines.

The same deflagration would have collapsed the bulkhead separating the 4-inch and inch magazines, resulting very quickly in a catastrophic explosion similar to those previously witnessed at Jutland.

This theory was ultimately adopted by the board. An extensive review of these theories excepting that of Preston is given in Jurens's article.

Its main conclusion is that the loss was almost certainly precipitated by the explosion of a 4-inch magazine, but that there are several ways this could have been initiated, although he rules out the boat deck fire or the detonation of her torpedoes as probable causes.

Moreover, computer-generated profiles of Hood show that a shell falling at this angle could not have reached an aft magazine without first passing through some part of the belt armour.

On the other hand, the inch belt could have been penetrated if Hood had progressed sufficiently far into her final turn.

A more recent development is the discovery of Hood ' s wreck. Inspection of the wreck has confirmed that the aft magazines did indeed explode.

The stern of the Hood was located, with the rudder still in place, and it was found that this was set to port at the time of the explosion.

Furthermore, a section of the bow immediately forward of 'A' turret is missing, which has led historian and former Dartmouth lecturer Eric J.

Grove and expedition leader David Mearns to believe that "either just before or just after leaving the surface, the bow suffered massive internal damage from an internal explosion", [88] possibly a partial detonation of the forward inch magazines.

It has been suggested that the fatal fire spread from the aft end of the ship through the starboard fuel tanks, since the starboard side of Hood "appears to be missing most, if not all of its torpedo bulge plating".

The evidence of the wreck refutes Goodall's theory of a torpedo explosion, while the eyewitness evidence of venting from the 4-inch magazine prior to the main explosion conflicts with the theory that the Hood was blown up by her own guns.

The other theories listed above remain valid possibilities. In their study of the battleship Bismarck ' s operational history released in , including its engagement with Hood , Jurens, William Garzke, and Robert O.

Dulin Jr. Rapid expansion of the resulting combustion gases from the conflagration then caused structural failure, passing out through the sides of the ship as well as forward and upwards via the engine room vents, expelling the aft main battery turrets and causing the stern to be detached from the rest of the hull at the aft armored bulkhead.

In , British broadcaster Channel 4 commissioned shipwreck hunter David Mearns and his company, Blue Water Recoveries, to locate the wreck of Hood , and if possible, produce underwater footage of both the battlecruiser and her attacker, Bismarck.

This was to be used for a major event documentary to be aired on the 60th anniversary of the ships' battle. The search team and equipment had to be organised within four months, to take advantage of a narrow window of calm conditions in the North Atlantic.

Organisation of the search was complicated by the presence on board of a documentary team and their film equipment, along with a television journalist who made live news reports via satellite during the search.

The search team also planned to stream video from the remotely operated underwater vehicle ROV directly to Channel 4's website.

Areas that Mearns felt were more likely to hold the wreck were prioritised, and the side-scan sonar located the battlecruiser in the 39th hour of the search.

Hood ' s wreck lies on the seabed in pieces among two debris fields at a depth of about 2, metres 9, feet. The 4-inch fire-control director lies in the western debris field.

The heavily armoured conning tower is located by itself a distance from the main wreck. The amidships section, the biggest part of the wreck to survive the explosions, lies inverted south of the eastern debris field in a large impact crater.

The starboard side of the amidships section is missing down to the inner wall of the fuel tanks and the plates of the hull are curling outward; this has been interpreted as indicating the path of the explosion through the starboard fuel tanks.

It is further supposed that the small debris fields are the fragments from the aft hull where the magazines and turrets were located, since that section of the hull was totally destroyed in the explosion.

The majority of these references date from the late 13th century. Between and , there are at least eight references to "Rabunhod" in various regions across England, from Berkshire in the south to York in the north.

Leaving aside the reference to the "rhymes" of Robin Hood in Piers Plowman in the s, [93] [94] and the scattered mentions of his "tales and songs" in various religious tracts dating to the early s, [95] [96] [97] the first mention of a quasi-historical Robin Hood is given in Andrew of Wyntoun 's Orygynale Chronicle , written in about The following lines occur with little contextualisation under the year In a petition presented to Parliament in , the name is used to describe an itinerant felon.

The petition cites one Piers Venables of Aston, Derbyshire , "who having no liflode, ne sufficeante of goodes, gadered and assembled unto him many misdoers, beynge of his clothynge, and, in manere of insurrection, wente into the wodes in that countrie, like as it hadde be Robyn Hude and his meyne.

The next historical description of Robin Hood is a statement in the Scotichronicon , composed by John of Fordun between and , and revised by Walter Bower in about Among Bower's many interpolations is a passage that directly refers to Robin.

It is inserted after Fordun's account of the defeat of Simon de Montfort and the punishment of his adherents, and is entered under the year in Bower's account.

Robin is represented as a fighter for de Montfort's cause. The word translated here as 'murderer' is the Latin sicarius literally 'dagger-man' , from the Latin sica for 'dagger', and descends from its use to describe the Sicarii , assassins operating in Roman Judea.

Bower goes on to relate an anecdote about Robin Hood in which he refuses to flee from his enemies while hearing Mass in the greenwood, and then gains a surprise victory over them, apparently as a reward for his piety; the mention of "tragedies" suggests that some form of the tale relating his death, as per A Gest of Robyn Hode , might have been in currency already.

Another reference, discovered by Julian Luxford in , appears in the margin of the " Polychronicon " in the Eton College library.

Written around the year by a monk in Latin, it says:. In , jurist Edward Coke described Robin Hood as a historical figure who had operated in the reign of King Richard I around Yorkshire; he interpreted the contemporary term "roberdsmen" outlaws as meaning followers of Robin Hood.

The earliest known legal records mentioning a person called Robin Hood Robert Hod are from , found in the York Assizes , when that person's goods, worth 32 shillings and 6 pence, were confiscated and he became an outlaw.

Robert Hod owed the money to St Peter's in York. The following year, he was called "Hobbehod", and also came to known as "Robert Hood".

Robert Hod of York is the only early Robin Hood known to have been an outlaw. Owen in floated the idea that Robin Hood might be identified with an outlawed Robert Hood, or Hod, or Hobbehod, all apparently the same man, referred to in nine successive Yorkshire Pipe Rolls between and Historian Oscar de Ville discusses the career of John Deyville and his brother Robert, along with their kinsmen Jocelin and Adam, during the Second Barons' War , specifically their activities after the Battle of Evesham.

John Deyville was granted authority by the faction led by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester over York Castle and the Northern Forests during the war in which they sought refuge after Evesham.

John, along with his relatives, led the remaining rebel faction on the Isle of Ely following the Dictum of Kenilworth. While John was eventually pardoned and continued his career until , his kinsmen are no longer mentioned by historical records after the events surrounding their resistance at Ely, and de Ville speculates that Robert remained an outlaw.

The last of these is suggested to be the inspiration for Robin Hood's second name as opposed to the more common theory of a head covering.

Although de Ville does not explicitly connect John and Robert Deyville to Robin Hood, he discusses these parallels in detail and suggests that they formed prototypes for this ideal of heroic outlawry during the tumultuous reign of Henry III's grandson and Edward I's son, Edward II of England.

David Baldwin identifies Robin Hood with the historical outlaw Roger Godberd , who was a die-hard supporter of Simon de Montfort , which would place Robin Hood around the s.

John Maddicott has called Godberd "that prototype Robin Hood". The antiquarian Joseph Hunter — believed that Robin Hood had inhabited the forests of Yorkshire during the early decades of the fourteenth century.

Hunter pointed to two men whom, believing them to be the same person, he identified with the legendary outlaw:. Hunter developed a fairly detailed theory implying that Robert Hood had been an adherent of the rebel Earl of Lancaster , who was defeated by Edward II at the Battle of Boroughbridge in According to this theory, Robert Hood was thereafter pardoned and employed as a bodyguard by King Edward, and in consequence he appears in the court roll under the name of "Robyn Hode".

Hunter's theory has long been recognised to have serious problems, one of the most serious being that recent research has shown that Hunter's Robyn Hood had been employed by the king before he appeared in the court roll, thus casting doubt on this Robyn Hood's supposed earlier career as outlaw and rebel.

It has long been suggested, notably by John Maddicott , that "Robin Hood" was a stock alias used by thieves. There is at present little or no scholarly support for the view that tales of Robin Hood have stemmed from mythology or folklore, from fairies or other mythological origins, any such associations being regarded as later development.

While the outlaw often shows great skill in archery, swordplay and disguise, his feats are no more exaggerated than those of characters in other ballads, such as Kinmont Willie , which were based on historical events.

Robin Hood has also been claimed for the pagan witch-cult supposed by Margaret Murray to have existed in medieval Europe, and his anti-clericalism and Marianism interpreted in this light.

The early ballads link Robin Hood to identifiable real places. In popular culture, Robin Hood and his band of "merry men" are portrayed as living in Sherwood Forest , in Nottinghamshire.

His chronicle entry reads:. Mary in the village of Edwinstowe and most famously of all, the Major Oak also located at the village of Edwinstowe.

Dendrologists have contradicted this claim by estimating the tree's true age at around eight hundred years; it would have been relatively a sapling in Robin's time, at best.

Nottinghamshire's claim to Robin Hood's heritage is disputed, with Yorkists staking a claim to the outlaw. In demonstrating Yorkshire's Robin Hood heritage, the historian J.

Holt drew attention to the fact that although Sherwood Forest is mentioned in Robin Hood and the Monk , there is little information about the topography of the region, and thus suggested that Robin Hood was drawn to Nottinghamshire through his interactions with the city's sheriff.

Robin Hood's Yorkshire origins are generally accepted by professional historians. A tradition dating back at least to the end of the 16th century gives Robin Hood's birthplace as Loxley , Sheffield , in South Yorkshire.

The original Robin Hood ballads, which originate from the fifteenth century, set events in the medieval forest of Barnsdale.

Barnsdale was a wooded area covering an expanse of no more than thirty square miles, ranging six miles from north to south, with the River Went at Wentbridge near Pontefract forming its northern boundary and the villages of Skelbrooke and Hampole forming the southernmost region.

From east to west the forest extended about five miles, from Askern on the east to Badsworth in the west. During the medieval age Wentbridge was sometimes locally referred to by the name of Barnsdale because it was the predominant settlement in the forest.

And, while Wentbridge is not directly named in A Gest of Robyn Hode , the poem does appear to make a cryptic reference to the locality by depicting a poor knight explaining to Robin Hood that he 'went at a bridge' where there was wrestling'.

The Gest makes a specific reference to the Saylis at Wentbridge. Credit is due to the nineteenth-century antiquarian Joseph Hunter , who correctly identified the site of the Saylis.

The Saylis is recorded as having contributed towards the aid that was granted to Edward III in —47 for the knighting of the Black Prince.

An acre of landholding is listed within a glebe terrier of relating to Kirk Smeaton , which later came to be called "Sailes Close". Taylor indicate that such evidence of continuity makes it virtually certain that the Saylis that was so well known to Robin Hood is preserved today as "Sayles Plantation".

One final locality in the forest of Barnsdale that is associated with Robin Hood is the village of Campsall. Davis indicates that there is only one church dedicated to Mary Magdalene within what one might reasonably consider to have been the medieval forest of Barnsdale, and that is the church at Campsall.

The church was built in the late eleventh century by Robert de Lacy, the 2nd Baron of Pontefract. The backdrop of St Mary's Abbey, York plays a central role in the Gest as the poor knight whom Robin aids owes money to the abbot.

At Kirklees Priory in West Yorkshire stands an alleged grave with a spurious inscription, which relates to Robin Hood. The fifteenth-century ballads relate that before he died, Robin told Little John where to bury him.

He shot an arrow from the Priory window, and where the arrow landed was to be the site of his grave. The Gest states that the Prioress was a relative of Robin's.

Robin was ill and staying at the Priory where the Prioress was supposedly caring for him. However, she betrayed him, his health worsened, and he eventually died there.

The inscription on the grave reads,. Despite the unconventional spelling, the verse is in Modern English , not the Middle English of the 13th century.

The date is also incorrectly formatted — using the Roman calendar , "24 kal Decembris" would be the twenty-third day before the beginning of December, that is, 8 November.

The tomb probably dates from the late eighteenth century. The grave with the inscription is within sight of the ruins of the Kirklees Priory, behind the Three Nuns pub in Mirfield , West Yorkshire.

Though local folklore suggests that Robin is buried in the grounds of Kirklees Priory , this theory has now largely been abandoned by professional historians.

Another theory is that Robin Hood died at Kirkby, Pontefract. Michael Drayton 's Poly-Olbion Song 28 67—70 , published in , speaks of Robin Hood's death and clearly states that the outlaw died at 'Kirkby'.

The location is approximately three miles from the site of Robin's robberies at the now famous Saylis.

All Saints' Church had a priory hospital attached to it. The Tudor historian Richard Grafton stated that the prioress who murdered Robin Hood buried the outlaw beside the road,.

Where he had used to rob and spoyle those that passed that way All Saints' Church at Kirkby, modern Pontefract, which was located approximately three miles from the site of Robin Hood's robberies at the Saylis, is consistent with Richard Grafton's description because a road ran directly from Wentbridge to the hospital at Kirkby.

Within close proximity of Wentbridge reside several notable landmarks relating to Robin Hood. One such place-name location occurred in a cartulary deed of from Monkbretton Priory, which makes direct reference to a landmark named Robin Hood's Stone, which resided upon the eastern side of the Great North Road, a mile south of Barnsdale Bar.

Robin Hood type place-names occurred particularly everywhere except Sherwood. The first place-name in Sherwood does not appear until the year The Sheriff of Nottingham also had jurisdiction in Derbyshire that was known as the "Shire of the Deer", and this is where the Royal Forest of the Peak is found, which roughly corresponds to today's Peak District National Park.

Mercia , to which Nottingham belonged, came to within three miles of Sheffield City Centre. But before the Law of the Normans was the Law of the Danes, The Danelaw had a similar boundary to that of Mercia but had a population of Free Peasantry that were known to have resisted the Norman occupation.

Many outlaws could have been created by the refusal to recognise Norman Forest Law. Further indications of the legend's connection with West Yorkshire and particularly Calderdale are noted in the fact that there are pubs called the Robin Hood in both nearby Brighouse and at Cragg Vale ; higher up in the Pennines beyond Halifax , where Robin Hood Rocks can also be found.

Considering these references to Robin Hood, it is not surprising that the people of both South and West Yorkshire lay some claim to Robin Hood, who, if he existed, could easily have roamed between Nottingham, Lincoln , Doncaster and right into West Yorkshire.

A British Army Territorial reserves battalion formed in Nottingham in was known as The Robin Hood Battalion through various reorganisations until the "Robin Hood" name finally disappeared in A Neolithic causewayed enclosure on Salisbury Plain has acquired the name Robin Hood's Ball , although had Robin Hood existed it is doubtful that he would have travelled so far south.

Ballads dating back to the 15th century are the oldest existing form of the Robin Hood legends, although none of them were recorded at the time of the first allusions to him, and many are from much later.

They share many common features, often opening with praise of the greenwood and relying heavily on disguise as a plot device , but include a wide variation in tone and plot.

Ballads whose first recorded version appears usually incomplete in the Percy Folio may appear in later versions [] and may be much older than the midth century when the Folio was compiled.

Any ballad may be older than the oldest copy that happens to survive, or descended from a lost older ballad. For example, the plot of Robin Hood's Death , found in the Percy Folio, is summarised in the 15th-century A Gest of Robyn Hode , and it also appears in an 18th-century version.

The first two ballads listed here the "Death" and "Gisborne" , although preserved in 17th-century copies, are generally agreed to preserve the substance of late medieval ballads.

The third the "Curtal Friar" and the fourth the "Butcher" , also probably have late medieval origins. Some ballads, such as Erlinton , feature Robin Hood in some variants, where the folk hero appears to be added to a ballad pre-existing him and in which he does not fit very well.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Robin Hood disambiguation. Arthur Bourchier James Booth M. Main articles: Robin Hood in popular culture and List of films and television series featuring Robin Hood.

Archived from the original on 18 May Retrieved 5 May Archived from the original on 16 November Archived from the original on 3 April Retrieved 4 May Retrieved 15 April The Gest of Robyn Hode".

Archived from the original on 7 November Archived from the original on 31 March Retrieved 10 February Archived from the original on 24 December Retrieved 12 March Archived from the original on 14 February Archived from the original on 18 August Archived from the original on 4 April Law, Crime and History.

Holt, Robin Hood, , pp. Archived from the original on 30 March Retrieved 7 April OUP Oxford. Retrieved 7 April — via Google Books.

George Peirce, London. Retrieved 22 November Archived from the original on 18 December Retrieved 18 December Larsen — An Historian Goes to the Movies.

Archived from the original on 10 August Retrieved 13 August Archived from the original on 27 July Retrieved 27 January Kline New York: Palgrave Macmillan, : — Cambridge University Press.

Sissons and son. Robin Hood: The Unknown Templar. Peter Owen Publishers. Laing, David ed. The Orygynale Cronykil Of Scotland.

By Androw of Wyntoun. Edmonston and Douglas. Knight, Stephen; Ohlgren, Thomas H. Translated by Jones, A.

Medieval Institute Publications published Archived from the original on 16 May Journal of Medieval History. Coss, S. Lloyd, ed. Thirteenth Century England University of Newcastle Northern History.

Nottingham Medieval Studies. Retrieved 19 August on the Godberd theory. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press.

Subscription or UK public library membership required. Brewer, pp. Holt, pp. See, in particular, Graves' notes to his reconstruction of Robin Hood's Death.

The Sherwood Forest Trust Nottinghamshire. Archived from the original on 24 August Retrieved 11 February Edwinstowe Parish Council.

Archived from the original on 24 July Retrieved 2 August Archived from the original on 14 August Retrieved 21 July Dobson, R. Maddicot, J.

National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 2 October Ghosts and Legends of the Lower Calder Valley. Archived from the original on 1 April Retrieved 13 June Kapelle, William E.

LXVI, ed. Retrieved 23 March Baldwin, David Amberley Publishing. Barry, Edward Sur les vicissitudes et les transformations du cycle populaire de Robin Hood.

Blackwood, Alice Blamires, David Rylands Univ. Brockman, B. South Atlantic Review.

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